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What can cause an allergic reaction?
A severe allergic reaction can affect the whole body - in susceptible individuals it may develop within seconds or minutes of contact with the trigger factor and is potentially dangerous. ....

Asthma Attack



What is asthma?

People with asthma have sensitive airways in their lungs. When they are exposed to certain triggers their airways narrow, making it harder for them to breathe.

How can I tell if someone is having an asthma attac....

Bleeding - Major



What can I do in the event of a severe bleed?

Apply direct pressure to the wound with an available dressing (preferably a clean cloth/towel) or use your fingers until a sterile dressing is available. Raise and support the injured limb however take particula....

Bleeding - Minor



How do I treat minor cuts, scratches and grazes?
Clean the cut under running water and pat dry with a sterile or lint free material. If possible raise the affected area above the heart.

Should I leave the affected area to 'air'?....

Broken Bones



How can I tell if someone has broken a bone?
The person may experience pain and swelling near or at the site of the injury, there may also be bruising and/or tenderness or they may be lying in an unnatural position. It might be difficult or impossible for no....

Burns - Major



How should I treat a severe burn?
Cool the burn under cold running water for at least ten minutes. Cooling will offer some pain relief and reduce swelling and the risk of scarring. The faster and longer a burn is cooled, the less impact of the injury. If you....

Burns - Minor



How do I treat a minor burn or scald?
For minor burns, hold the affected area under cold water for at least 10 minutes or until the pain subsides. In order to avoid infection cover the burn with a non-fluffy material (cloth, clean plastic bag or kitchen film....




What is concussion?

The brain is free to move a little within the skull, and can therefore be 'shaken' by a blow to the head. This shaking is referred to as concussion. The symptoms of concussion include: dizziness, headache, confusion, feeling sick, blurre....




What is frostbite?
Frostbite occurs when damage is caused to the skin and tissue (usually the toes and the fingers) due to exposure to freezing or windy and cold conditions. In severe cases, it can lead to a permanent loss of sensation and eventually gangren....

Heart Attack


What are the symptoms of a heart attack?

The person may have persistent vice-like chest pain which may spread to their arms, neck, jaw, back or stomach. They may also experience breathlessness, nausea/vomiting, abdomen discomfort, irregul....




What causes heatstroke?

Heatstroke is caused by a failure of the thermostat located in the brain - this regulates the body temperature. The body then becomes overheated usually due to a high fever or prolonged exposure to heat. In some cases heatstroke foll....




What is hypothermia?

Hypothermia develops when the body temperature falls below 35°C (95°F). The effects vary depending on the speed of the onset and the level to which the body temperature falls.  Severe hypothermia can occur when the core bod....

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